are divided into little subcategories. Unless stated otherwise, they
are all by Malcolm X.
By Any Means Necessary...
declare our right on this earth...to be a human being, to be respected
as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being in this society,
on this earth, in this day, which we intend to bring into existence
by any means necessary."
objective is complete freedom, justice and equality by any means
day that the black man takes an uncompromising step and realizes that
he's within his rights, when his own freedom is being jeopardized, to
use any means necessary to bring about his freedom or put a halt
to that injustice, I don't think he'll be by himself."
Students, the Youth...
education, you're not going anywhere in this world."
is our passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to the people who
prepare for it today."
at yourselves. Some of you teenagers, students. How do you think I feel
and I belong to a generation ahead of you - how do you think I feel
to have to tell you, 'We, my generation, sat around like a knot on a
wall while the whole world was fighting for its hum an rights - and
you've got to be born into a society where you still have that same
fight.' What did we do, who preceded you ? I'll tell you what we did.
Nothing. And don't you make the same mistake we made...."
you've studied the captives being caught by the American soldiers in
South Vietnam, you'll find that these guerrillas are young people. Some
of them are just children and some haven't reached their teens. Most
are teenagers. It is the teenagers abroad, all over the world, who are
actually involving themselves in the struggle to eliminate oppression
and exploitation. In the Congo, the refugees point out that many of
the Congolese revolutionaries, they shoot all the way down to seven
years old - that's been reported in the press. Because the revolutionaries
are children, young people. In these countries, the young people are
the ones who most quickly identify with the struggle and the necessity
to eliminate the evil conditions that exist. And here in this country,
it has been my own observation that when you get into a conversation
on racism and discrimination and segregation, you will find young people
more incensed over it - they feel more filled with an urge to eliminate
Luther King, Jr...
got the peace prize, we got the problem.... If I'm following a general,
and he's leading me into a battle, and the enemy tends to give him rewards,
or awards, I get suspicious of him. Especially if he gets a peace award
before the war is over."
say nothing against him. At one time the whites in the United States
called him a racialist, and extremist, and a Communist. Then the Black
Muslims came along and the whites thanked the Lord for Martin Luther
King wants the same thing I want -- freedom!"
"I want Dr.
King to know that I didn't come to Selma to make his job difficult.
I really did come thinking I could make it easier. If the white people
realize what the alternative is, perhaps they will be more willing
to hear Dr. King."
Dr. King on
"You know, right before he was killed he came down to Selma
and said some pretty passionate things against me, and that surprised
me because after all it was my territory there. But afterwards he
took my wife aside, and said he thought he could help me more by attacking
me than praising me. He thought it would make it easier for me in
the long run."
goal has always been the same, with the approaches to it as different
as mine and Dr. Martin Luther King's non-violent marching, that dramatizes
the brutality and the evil of the white man against defenseless blacks.
And in the racial climate of this country today, it is anybody's guess
which of the "extremes" in approach to the black man's problems
might personally meet a fatal catastrophe first -- "non-violent"
Dr. King, or so-called "violent" me."
nonviolence: It is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself, when
he is the constant victim of brutal attacks. It is legal and lawful
to own a shotgun or a rifle. We believe in obeying the law."
doesn't mean that I advocate violence, but at the same time, I am not
against using violence in self-defense. I don't call it violence when
it's self-defense, I call it intelligence."
violence is wrong in America, violence is wrong abroad. If it is wrong
to be violent defending black women and black children and black babies
and black men, then it is wrong for America to draft us, and make us
violent abroad in defense of her. And if it is right for America to
draft us, and teach us how to be violent in defense of her, then it
is right for you and me to do whatever is necessary to defend our own
people right here in this country."
don't mean go out and get violent; but at the same time you should never
be nonviolent unless you run into some nonviolence. I'm nonviolent with
those who are nonviolent with me. But when you drop that violence on
me, then you've made me go insane, and I'm not responsible for what
don't favor violence. If we could bring about recognition and respect
of our people by peaceful means, well and good. Everybody would like
to reach his objectives peacefully. But I'm also a realist. The only
people in this country who are asked to be nonviolent are black people."
but not least, I must say this concerning the great controversy over
rifles and shotguns. The only thing I've ever said is that in areas
where the government has proven itself either unwilling or unable to
defend the lives and the property of Negroes, it's time for Negroes
to defend themselves. Article number two of the Constitutional amendments
provides you and me the right to own a rifle or a shotgun. It is constitutionally
legal to own a shotgun or a rifle. This doesn't mean you're going to
get a rifle and form battalions and go out looking for white folks,
although you'd be within your rights - I mean, you'd be justified; but
that would be illegal and we don't do anything illegal. If the white
man doesn't want the black man buying rifles and shotguns, then let
the government do its job. That's all."
"If I have
a cup of coffee that is too strong for me because it is too black,
I weaken it by pouring cream into it. I integrate it with cream. If
I keep pouring enough cream in the coffee, pretty soon the entire
flavor of the coffee is changed; the very nature of the coffee is
changed. If enough cream is poured in, eventually you don't even know
that I had coffee in this cup. This is what happened with the March
on Washington. The whites didn't integrate it; they infiltrated it.
Whites joined it; they engulfed it; they became so much a part of
it, it lost its original flavor. It ceased to be a black march; it
ceased to be militant; it ceased to be angry; it ceased to be impatient.
In fact, it ceased to be a march."
it does make the black people in this country who are jobless and unemployed
and standing in the welfare line very much discouraged to see a government
that can't solve our problem, can't provide job opportunities for us,
and at the some time not only Cubans but Hungarians and every other
type of white refugee imaginable can come to this country and get everything
this government has to offer."
never seen a sincere white man, not when it comes to helping black people.
Usually things like this are done by white people to benefit themselves.
The white man's primary interest is not to elevate the thinking of black
people, or to waken black people, or white people either. The white
man is interested in the black man only to the extent that the black
man is of use to him. The white man's interest is to make money, to
common enemy is the white man."
integrated cup of coffee isn't sufficient pay for four hundred years
of slave labor."
can you thank a man for giving you what's already yours? How then can
you thank him for giving you only part of what is yours?"
can't turn around without hearing about some 'civil rights advance'!
White people seem to think the black man ought to be shouting 'hallelujah'!
Four hundred years the white man has had his foot-long knife in the
black man's back - and now the white man starts to wiggle the knife
out, maybe six inches! The black man's supposed to be grateful? Why,
if the white man jerked the knife out, it's still going to leave a scar!"
Death, and the Oppressed...
in defense of freedom is greater than power in behalf of tyranny and
is on the side of the oppressed."
can't separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless
he has his freedom."
don't have to be a man to fight for freedom. All you have to do is to
be an intelligent human being."
you're not ready to die for it, put the word 'freedom' out of your vocabulary."
price of freedom is death."
me, or put me to death."
a person places the proper value on freedom, there is nothing under
the sun that he will not do to acquire that freedom. Whenever you hear
a man saying he wants freedom, but in the next breath he is going to
tell you what he won't do to get it, or what he doesn't believe in doing
in order to get it, he doesn't believe in freedom. A man who believes
in freedom will do anything under the sun to acquire...or preserve his
am not a racist. I am against every form of racism and segregation,
every form of discrimination. I believe in human beings, and that all
human beings should be respected as such, regardless of their color."
am not a racist.... In the past I permitted myself to be used...to make
sweeping indictments of all white people, the entire white race and
these generalizations have caused injuries to some whites who perhaps
did not deserve to be hurt. Because of the spiritual enlightenment which
I was blessed to receive as a result of my recent pilgrimage to the
Holy city of Mecca, I no longer subscribe to sweeping indictments of
any one race. I am now striving to live the life of a true...Muslim.
I must repeat that I am not a racist nor do I subscribe to the tenants
of racism. I can state in all sincerity that I wish nothing but freedom,
justice and equality, life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness for
am not a racist in any form whatsoever. I don't believe in any form
of discrimination or segregation."
is a time for martyrs now, and if I am to be one, it will be for the
cause of brotherhood. That's the only thing that can save this country."
people have made the mistake of confusing the methods with the objectives.
As long as we agree on objectives, we should never fall out with each
other just because we believe in different methods, or tactics, or strategy.
We have to keep in mind at all times that we are not fighting for separation.
We are fighting for recognition as free humans in this society."
only way we'll get freedom for ourselves is to identify ourselves with
every oppressed people in the world. We are blood brothers to the people
of Brazil, Venezuela, Haiti... Cuba - yes Cuba too."
you go to a church and you see the pastor of that church with a philosophy
and a program that's designed to bring black people together and elevate
black people, join that church! If you see where the NAACP is preaching
and practising that which is designed to make black nationalism materialize,
join the NAACP. Join any kind of organization--civic, religious, fraternal,
political or otherwise--that's based on lifting... the black man up
and making him master of his own community."
believe in the brotherhood of man, all men, but I don't believe in brotherhood
with anybody who doesn't want brotherhood with me. I believe in treating
people right, but I'm not going to waste my time trying to treat somebody
right who doesn't know how to return the treatment."
black men have a hard enough time in our own struggle for justice, and
already have enough enemies as it is, to make the drastic mistake of
attacking each other and adding more weight to an already unbearable
can be no black-white unity until there is first some black unity....
We cannot think of uniting with others, until after we have first united
among ourselves. We cannot think of being acceptable to others until
we have first proven acceptable to ourselves."
ever heard of angry revolutionists all harmonizing 'We shall overcome
... Suum Day...' while tripping and swaying along arm-in-arm with the
very people they were supposed to be angrily revolting against ? Who
ever heard of angry revolutionists swinging their bare feet together
with their oppressor in lily-pad park pools, with gospels and guitars
and 'I have a dream' speeches? And the black masses in America were--and
still are--having a nightmare."
white man knows what a revolution is. He knows that the Black Revolution
is worldwide in scope and in nature. The Black Revolution is sweeping
Asia, is sweeping Africa, is rearing its head in Latin America. The
Cuban Revolution - that's a revolution. They overturned the system.
Revolution is in Asia, revolution is in Africa, and the white man is
screaming because he sees revolution in Latin America. How do you think
he'll react to you when you learn what a real revolution is?"
is incorrect to classify the revolt of the Negro as simply a radical
conflict of black against white or as a purely American problem. Rather,
we are today seeing a global rebellion of the oppressed against the
oppressor, the exploited against the exploiter."
same rebellion, the same impatience, the same anger that exists in the
hearts of the dark people in Africa and Asia is existing in the hearts
and minds of 20 million black people in this country who have been just
as thoroughly colonized as the people in Africa and Asia."
when people are sad, they don't do anything. They just cry over their
condition. But when they get angry, they bring about a change."
for one believe that if you give people a thorough understanding of
what confronts them and the basic causes that produce it, they'll create
their own program, and when the people create a program, you get action."
not going to sit at your table and watch you eat, with nothing on my
plate, and call myself a diner. Sitting at the table doesn't make you
a diner, unless you eat some of what's on that plate. Being here in
America doesn't make you an American.... No I'm not an American, I'm
one of the 22 million black people who are the victims of Americanism.
One of the 22 million black people who are the victims of democracy,
nothing but disguised hypocrisy.... I'm speaking as a victim of this
American system. And I see America through the eyes of a victim. I don't
see any American dream; I see an American nightmare."
not Americans, we're Africans who happen to be in America. We were kidnapped
and brought here against our will from Africa. We didn't land on Plymouth
Rock - that rock landed on us."
of the things that made the Black Muslim movement grow was its emphasis
upon things African. This was the secret to the growth of the Black
Muslim movement. African blood, African origin, African culture, African
ties. And you'd be surprised - we discovered that deep within the subconscious
of the black man in this country, he is still more African than he is
million African-Americans - that's what we are - Africans who are in
I'm traveling around the country, I use my real Muslim name, Malik Shabazz.
I make my hotel reservations under that name, and I always see the same
thing I've just been telling you. I come to the desk and always see
that 'here-comes-a-Negro' look. It's kind of a reserved, coldly tolerant
cordiality. But when I say 'Malik Shabazz,' their whole attitude changes:
they snap to respect. They think I'm an African. People say what's in
a name? There's a whole lot in a name. The American black man is seeing
the African respected as a human being. The African gets respect because
he has an identity and cultural roots. But most of all because the African
owns some land. For these reasons he has his human rights recognized,
and that makes his civil rights automatic."
Politics and 'isms...
if he would accept outer help from the Communists:
"Let me tell
you a little story. It's like being in a wolf's den. The wolf sees
someone on the outside who is interested in freeing me from the den.
The wolf doesn't like that person on the outside. But I don't care
who opens the door and lets me out."
your answer is yes?"
talking about a wolf."
zionist argument to justify Israel's present occupation of Arab Palestine
has no intelligent or legal basis in history."
is impossible for capitalism to survive, primarily because the system
of capitalism needs some blood to suck. Capitalism used to be like an
eagle, but now it's more like a vulture. It used to be strong enough
to go and suck anybody's blood whether they were strong or not. But
now it has become more cowardly, like the vulture, and it can only suck
the blood of the helpless. As the nations of the world free themselves,
the capitalism has less victims, less to suck, and it becomes weaker
and weaker. It's only a matter of time in my opinion before it will
might point out here that colonialism or imperialism, as the slave system
of the West is called, is not something that is just confined to England
or France or the United States. The interests in this country are in
cahoots with the interests in France and the interests in Britain. It's
one huge complex or combine, and it creates what's known not as the
American power structure or the French power structure, but an international
power structure. This international power structure is used to suppress
the masses of dark-skinned people all over the world and exploit them
of their natural resources."
think that an objective analysis of events that are taking place on
this earth today points towards some type of ultimate showdown. You
can call it political showdown, or even a showdown between the economic
systems that exist on this earth which almost boil down along racial
lines. I do believe that there will be a clash between East and West.
I believe that there will ultimately be a clash between the oppressed
and those that do the oppressing. I believe that there will be a clash
between those who want freedom, justice and equality for everyone and
those who want to continue the systems of exploitation."
new world order is in the making, and it is up to us to prepare ourselves
that we may take our rightful place in it."
ballot is like a bullet. You don't throw your ballots until you see
a target, and if that target is not in reach, keep your ballot in your
the Black masses, don't want these leaders who seek our support coming
to us representing a certain political party. They must come to us today
as Black Leaders representing the welfare of Black people. We won't
follow any leader today who comes on the basis of political party. Both
parties (Democrat and Republican) are controlled by the same people
who have abused our rights, and who have deceived us with false promises
every time an election rolls around."
Hypocrisy, Delusion, Honesty...
don't stand for anything different in South Africa than America stands
for. The only difference is over there they preach as well as practice
apartheid. America preaches freedom and practices slavery."
would like to point something out so that we'll understand each other
better. I don't want you to think in the statements I made that I'm
being disrespectful towards you as white people. I'm being frank. And
I think that my statements will give you a better insight on the mind
of a black man than most statements you get from most people who call
themselves Negroes, who usually tell you what they want you to hear
with the hope...that will make them draw closer to you and create a
better possibility of getting from you some of the crumbs that you might
let fall from your table. Well, I'm not looking for crumbs so I'm not
trying to delude you."
not supposed to be so blind with patriotism that you can't face reality.
Wrong is wrong, no matter who does it or who says it."
you are in a country that is progressive, the woman is progressive.
If you're in a country that reflects the consciousness toward the importance
of education, it's because the woman is aware of the importance of education.
But in every backward country you'll find the women are backward, and
in every country where education is not stressed its because the women
don't have education."
Human Rights, Humanity...
believe in human rights for everyone, and none of us is qualified to
judge each other and that none of us should therefore have that authority."
is not a case of our people...wanting either separation or integration.
The use of these words actually clouds the real picture. The 22 million
Afro-Americans don't seek either separation or integration. They seek
recognition and respect as human beings."
for truth, no matter who tells it. I'm for justice, no matter who it
is for or against. I'm a human being, first and foremost, and as such
I'm for whoever and whatever benefits humanity as a whole."
have to keep in mind at all times that we are not fighting for integration,
nor are we fighting for separation. We are fighting for recognition...for
the right to live as free humans in this society."
believe in recognizing every human being as a human being - neither
white, black, brown, or red; and when you are dealing with humanity
as a family there's no question of integration or intermarriage. It's
just one human being marrying another human being or one human being
living around and with another human being."
"Do you consider yourself militant?"
the man you think you are.... If you want to know what I'll do, figure
out what you'll do. I'll do the same thing -- only more of it."
am neither a fanatic nor a dreamer. I am a black man who loves peace,
and justice, and loves his people."
believe that it would be almost impossible to find anywhere in America
a black man who has lived further down in the mud of human society than
I have; or a black man who has been any more ignorant than I have; or
a black man who has suffered more anguish during his life than I have.
But it is only after the deepest darkness that the greatest joy can
come; it is only after slavery and prison that the sweetest appreciation
of freedom can come."
may say, though, that I don't think it should ever be put upon a black
man, I don't think the burden to defend any position should ever be
put upon the black man, because it is the white man collectively who
has shown that he is hostile toward integration and toward intermarriage
and toward those other strides toward oneness. So as a black man, and
especially as a black American, any stand that I formerly took, I don't
think that I have to defend it because it's still a reaction to the
society, and it's a reaction that was produced by the society; and I
think that it is the society that produced this that should be attacked,
not the reaction that develops among the people who are the victims
of that negative society."
am and always will be a Muslim. My religion is Islam."
(Nation of Islam)/"Black Muslims"
12 long years I lived within the narrow-minded confines of the 'straightjacket
world' created by my strong belief that Elijah Muhammad was a messenger
direct from God Himself, and my faith in what I now see to be a pseudo-religious
philosophy that he preaches.... I shall never rest until I have undone
the harm I did to so many well-meaning, innocent Negroes who through
my own evangelistic zeal now believe in him even more fanatically and
more blindly than I did."
had blind faith in him. My faith in Elijah Muhammad was more blind and
more uncompromising than any faith that any man has ever had for another
man. And so I didn't try and see him as he actually was."
thing that you have to understand about those of us in the Black Muslim
movement was that all of us believed 100 percent in the divinity of
Elijah Muhammad. We believed in him. We actually believed that God,
in Detroit by the way, that God had taught him and all of that. I always
believed that he believed in himself. And I was shocked when I found
out that he himself didn't believe it. And when that shock reached me,
then I began to look everywhere else and try to get a better understanding
of the things that confront all of us so that we can get together in
some kind of way to offset them."
the Black Muslim movement came along, the NAACP was looked upon as radical;
they were getting ready to investigate it. And then along came the Muslim
movement and frightened the white man so hard that he began to say,
'Thank God for old Uncle Roy, and Uncle Whitney, and Uncle A. Philip....'
think you'll find, brother, that there are Muslims everywhere. Wherever
you find militancy today among so-called Negroes, watch real closely.
You're liable to be looking at a Muslim."
am a Muslim, because it's a religion that teaches you an eye for an
eye and a tooth for a tooth. It teaches you to respect everybody, and
treat everybody right. But it also teaches you if someone steps on your
toe, chop off their foot. And I carry my religious axe with me all the
is nothing in our book, the Qur'an, that teaches us to suffer peacefully.
Our religion teaches us to be intelligent. Be peaceful, be courteous,
obey the law, respect everyone; but if someone lays a hand on you, send
him to the cemetery."
believe in Islam. I am a Muslim and there is nothing wrong with being
a Muslim, nothing wrong with the religion of Islam. It just teaches
us to believe in Allah as the God. Those of you who are Christian probably
believe in the same God, because I think you believe in the God Who
created the universe. That's the One we believe in, the One Who created
universe--the only difference being you call Him God and we call Him
Allah. The Jews call Him Jehovah. If you could understand Hebrew, you
would probably call Him Jehovah too. If you could understand Arabic,
you would probably call Him Allah...."
needs to understand Islam, because this is the one religion that erases
from its society the race problem. Throughout my travels in the Muslim
world, I have met, talked to, and even eaten with people who in America
would have been considered white, but the white attitude was removed
from their minds by the religion of Islam. I have never before seen
sincere and true brotherhood practiced by all together, irrespective
of their color."
believe in a religion that believes in freedom. Any time I have to accept
a religion that won't let me fight a battle for my people, I say to
hell with that religion."
Islam taught me that it takes all of the religious, political, economic,
psychological, and racial ingredients, or characteristics, to make the
Human Family and the Human Society complete."
one or another college or university, usually in the informal gatherings
after I had spoken, perhaps a dozen generally white-complexioned people
would come up to me, identifying themselves as Arabian, Middle Eastern
or North African Muslims who happened to be visiting, studying, or living
in the United States. They had said to me that, my white-indicting statements
notwithstanding, they felt I was sincere in considering myself a Muslim
-- and they felt if I was exposed to what they always called 'true Islam,'
I would 'understand it, and embrace it.' Automatically, as a follower
of Elijah, I had bridled whenever this was said. But in the privacy
of my own thoughts after several of these experiences, I did question
myself: if one was sincere in professing a religion, why should he balk
at broadening his knowledge of that religion?
Those orthodox Muslims whom I had met, one after another, had urged
me to meet and talk with a Dr. Mahmoud Youssef Shawarbi. . . . Then
one day Dr. Shawarbi and I were introduced by a newspaperman. He was
cordial. He said he had followed me in the press; I said I had been
told of him, and we talked for fifteen or twenty minutes. We both had
to leave to make appointments we had, when he dropped on me something
whose logic never would get out of my head. He said, 'No man has believed
perfectly until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.'
am and always will be a Muslim. My religion is Islam."
we don't stand for something, we may fall for anything."
in life I had learned that if you want something, you had better make
alma mater was books, a good library.... I could spend the rest of my
life reading, just satisfying my curiosity."
you see someone more successful than you are, they are doing something
is a people's memory, and without a memory, man is demoted to the lower
I am, back in Mecca. I am still traveling, trying to broaden my mind,
for I've seen too much of the damage narrow-mindedness can make of things,
and when I return home to America, I will devote what energies I have
to repairing the damage."
my recent travels into African countries and others, I was impressed
by the importance of having a working unity among all peoples, black
as well as white."
the freedom of my 22 million black brothers and sisters here in America,
I do believe that I have fought the best that I know how, and the best
that I could, with the shortcomings that I have had...I know that societies
often have killed people who have helped to change those societies.
And if I can die having brought any light, having exposed any meaningful
truth that will help destroy the racist cancer that is malignant in
the body of America then, all of the credit is due to Allah. Only the
mistakes have been mine."
always knew it would end like this."
is due to Allah, the Lord of all the worlds."